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H. pylori in patients with gastritis in West Cameroon: prevalence and risk factors for infection Featured

H. pylori is a pathogenic bacterium that parasitizes the gastric mucous layer and the epithelial lining of the stomach causing duodenal ulcers, gastric ulcers and cardiovascular disease amongst others. This study aimed at establishing the epidemiologic profle of H. pylori infection in gastritis patients presenting at the Melong District Hospital.

Results: Blood, stool and epidemiological data collected from 500 patients were analyzed for the presence of H. pylori antibody in serum, antigen in stool and elucidation of risk factors captured in questionnaires. Of 500 blood samples, 217 (43.4%) were seropositive with male and female seroprevalences of 45.5% (61/134) and 42.6% (156/366) respectively. Similarly, 47.4% (237/500) samples tested positive for stool antigen with prevalences of 47.0% (63/134) for males and 47.5% (174/366) for females. The antigen prevalence was higher (53.2%; 118/222) in older patients (>50 years) than in younger patients (42.8%; 119/278; P=0.021). The antigen test had a higher (47.4%) prevalence than the antibody test (43.4%). Educational level, source of income, source of drinking water, age of patients, and alcohol consumption had positive associations with H. pylori infection. These results have clinical and epidemiological signifcance and call for intervention to mitigate the situation.

(Agbor NE et al - BMC Res Notes (2018) 11:55)

Introduction

Helicobacter pylori, a bacterium that parasitizes the gastric mucous layer and the epithelial lining of the stomach, is a Class I carcinogen and the predominant bacterium that colonizes the stomach mostly during childhood [1, 2]. Tis bacterium infects over 50% of the world’s population and is a frequent cause of chronic bacterial infections [3]. Approximately 10% of infected individuals develop overt clinical disease while 90% remain subclinical and the infection can persist throughout life if untreated [4]. So far, H. pylori has 20 recognized strains [5] that have been implicated in many diseases including duodenal ulcers, gastric ulcers, adenocarcinoma of the distal stomach, mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma, diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease and autoimmune disease [1, 5]. Treatment failure of H. pylori infection has been linked to bacterial resistance and poor patient compliance [6, 7]. Te routes of transmission of H. pylori have not been clearly identifed. Housefies have been shown to have the potential to transmit the organism mechanically implying poor sanitation is a risk factor for its spread [8]. Transmission from person-to-person and through tubes or endoscopes have been reported. Use of water contaminated with faeces may predispose people to H. pylori infection [8, 9] and if the water source is a municipal water supply, this may potentiate its spread. Factors that have been associated with the acquisition of H. pylori infection include high density crowding, poor sanitary.Practices, family income, educational level, age, occupation, religion and poor water supply [4, 10, 11]. Tere is great geographical variation in the prevalence of H. pylori with higher prevalence in developing than in developed countries [1, 12]. Knowledge of H. pylori status is very important in patient management. Diagnosis relies on invasive and non-invasive techniques and noninvasive techniques (such as stool test and serology) are preferable in epidemiological studies [13]. Te stool test demonstrates the presence of antigens while serology detects antibodies to H. pylori. However, serologic tests are limited by false positivity because of cross-reactions [13]. Previous studies have confrmed the superiority of the stool antigen test over serology in terms of true outcomes and cost [14]. Tere is a paucity of information on the prevalence of H. pylori and associated risk factors in Cameroon. Previous studies in Cameroon reported H. pylori prevalence of 72% (67/93) from biopsies samples with evidence of gastritis [15] and 92.2% from gastric biopsies of patients with gastroduodenal pathologies [16]. It was therefore important to conduct this hospital-based cross-sectional study to generate recent spatiotemporal data on H. pylori prevalence and risk factors for infection to inform prevention and control measures.

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Last modified on Thứ bảy, 12 Tháng 9 2020 08:47
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